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Le Monde du Sud// Elsie news

Le Monde du Sud// Elsie news

Haïti, les Caraïbes, l'Amérique Latine et le reste du monde. Histoire, politique, agriculture, arts et lettres.


History Commons. The 2004 removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Publié par siel sur 18 Mai 2013, 12:06pm

Catégories : #AYITI EXTREME DROITE

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Duvalier J-Cl et le général Prosper Avril, invités par Martelly, à la commémoration officielle des victimes du séisme de 2010


Suite au récit résumé des événements qui ont conduit au retour officiel des militaro/macouto/duvaliéristes à la tête de l'Etat haïtien  Les Gnbistes poussent des cris d'orfraie voici une chronologie des faits marquants à partir de 1980 jusqu'au 2ème coup de 2004. L'intérêt de cette chronologie est de montrer années après années, comment ceux-là mêmes qui aujourd'hui, souillent  la démocratie en la barbouillant de rose, ont commis les pires crimes afin d'empêcher le peuple haïtien de construire l'Etat de droit, la justice qu'il réclamait et pour lequel il a lutté, après s'être débarrassé de Duvalier J-Cl.

Barrer la route à la démocratie

Pour un analyste impartial, à savoir pour quelqu'un qui réfléchit à partir des faits et pas des zen, rumeurs et sympathies ou antipathies personnelles, ce qui apparait à travers cette documentation, c'est la détermination-  qui utilise crimes et corruption dans toutes les couches de la société, de haut en bas, pour faire obstacle, avec l'appui  de leurs complices de la droite et de l'extrême droite étrangers, au projet pacifique du peuple haïtien de sortir de l'esclavage moderne et de la terreur imposés par les 2 Duvalier.

 

Ce qui apparait clairement, c'est que le peuple haïtien, s'est battu de manière héroïque pendant ces vingt-cinq années, avec le peu de moyens financiers et de ressources humaines dont il disposait après 29 ans où le pays a été livré à une bande de prédateurs. Pendant ces 29 ans les meilleurs d'entre les Haïtiens, parmi les plus compétents, honnêtes et courageux, ont été tués ou sont partis en exil où nombre d'entre eux sont morts, sans avoir jamais eu la possibilité de retourner dans leur pays. 

 

Aristide n'aurait pas été président, cela aurait été Jean Dominique ou Izmery ou bien même un personnage comme Déjoie qu'ils se seraient  heurtés aux mêmes forces  qui veulent " contenir" le peuple haïtien dans la pauvreté matérielle et intellecuelle.

 

Un jour, dans X années,  un cinéaste haïtien, je n'en doute pas,   nous racontera l'histoire de ces 25 dernières années post-dictature pleines de souffrances, d'assassinats, de gens faits "disparus", de corruption et de vols par les militaro/macouto/duvaliéristes et faussement attribués au camp progressiste, comme l'a fait Solanas avec son film" Mémoire d'un Saccage'link concernant l'Argentine.

 

Celui-ci s'appellerait : "Mémoire du saccage de la démocratie, Haïti 1986-2004." Nous pourrions y voir tous nos martyrs qui sont tombés au cours de ces  25 années et leurs bourreaux.


Comme nous pouvons le constater avec d'autres pays qui ont connu des dictatures prolongées, sortir de la dictature, mettre fin aux réseaux de complicité, juger les criminels, n'est pas chose facile. Surtout quand ces criminels sont protégés par des intérêts étrangers. Mais nous pouvons également constater que la justice, parfois et même si que très tardivement,  les rattrape, comme au Guatemala link

 

Un  peuple sans mémoire est un peuple sans avenir.

Sans la mémoire et la réflexion sur son passé, il ne peut  que se lancer dans l'aventure de construire sur du fatras, des mensonges,  des peurs, de la violence et des lâchetés. Il batit sur  socle  décomposé, avec des matériaux pourris qui, de même que les maisons  sauvagement bétonnées de l'ère duvaliérienne,  s'écroulera tôt ou tard.

En tolérant les criminels au sein de notre société, nous  nous faisons également criminels.

 

Project: 2004 Ousting of Jean-Bertrand Aristide
Open-Content project managed by mtuck

Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest, preaches Liberation Theology in Haiti. US conservatives spread stories that he could be the next Castro.[ROGOZINSKI, 1992TAIPEI TIMES, 3/1/2004OBSERVER, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand AristideFidel Castro

Category Tags: Other events

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tGeneral Prosper Avril, a former leader of Duvaliers’ Presidential Guard, seizes control of Haiti. During his rule, he suspends 27 articles of the constitution, declares a state of siege, and is responsible for numerous human rights abuses. A US District Court will later award $41 million in compensation to six Haitians who were tortured under his regime including opposition politicians, union leaders, scholars, and “even a doctor trying to practice community medicine.” The US will help Avril evade arrest in December 2003 (see December 2003). [MIAMI HERALD, 5/31/2001LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Prosper Avril

Category Tags: Other events

Haitian Guy Philippe is trained by US Special Forces in Ecuador. [HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004MIAMI HERALD, 2/28/2004OBSERVER, 3/2/2004ONE WORLD, 3/2/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Running against 11 other candidates, Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the presidential elections in Haiti with a two-thirds majority. The election turnout is high and is later described as being “unquestionably the most honest Haiti has known.”[ROGOZINSKI, 1992LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS, 4/15/2004]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Timeline Tags: US-Haiti (1804-2005)

Category Tags: Other events

In Haiti, the Front for the Advancement of Progress of the Haitian People (FRAPH) overthrows the government while Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is on a visit to the UN in New York. The group rules as a repressive military regime until 1994 when a US-led UN intervention puts Aristide back in power (see September 19, 1994-October 15, 1994[ROGOZINSKI, 1992OBSERVER, 3/2/2004] The junta is responsible for the massacre of hundreds—or by some estimates, thousands—of dissidents. [TURCK, 2/24/2004OBSERVER, 3/2/2004JAMAICA OBSERVER, 3/7/2004] The leader of the group is Emmanuel “Toto” Constant, who later acknowledges he had support from the CIA. “Emmanuel Constant is widely alleged, and himself claims, to have been in the pay of, and under the orders of, the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the coup period,” Amnesty International will later report. The amount paid to Constant by the CIA during this period is $500/month.[AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 2/7/1996CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS, 2/18/2004OBSERVER, 3/2/2004LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS, 4/15/2004] Second in command is Louis-Jodel Chamblain, who had led death squads during the years of Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier’s dictatorship and who is later convicted and implicated in multiple crimes committed during this period. [OBSERVER, 3/2/2004JAMAICA OBSERVER, 3/7/2004]

Antoine Izmery, financier of Haitian President Jean-Claude Bertrand and a known pro-democracy advocate, is dragged from church during a mass, and executed. Louis-Jodel Chamblain is later convicted in absentia and sentenced to life imprisonment for the crime. [HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004JAMAICA OBSERVER, 3/7/2004;AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 3/10/2004]

Haitian Justice Minister Guy Malary and his bodyguard are killed in an ambush. According to a CIA memorandum, dated October 28, 1993, which will later be obtained by the Center for Constitutional Rights, “FRAPH members Jodel Chamblain, Emmanuel Constant, and Gabriel Douzable met with an unidentified military officer on the morning of 14 October to discuss plans to kill Malary.” According to the Center, “Constant at the time was a paid CIA informant, earning $500 a month.” [CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS, 2/18/2004HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004]

On April 18 and 22, 1994, members of the Haitian Armed Forces and the paramilitary Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) enter the coastal slum of Raboteau on the outskirts of the city of Gonaives. They break into “dozens of homes, beating, and arresting those they found inside,” the BBC will recount several years later. Several of the victims are “tortured on site” and “forced to lie in open sewers” while others are shot as they try to escape. [JAMAICA OBSERVER, 3/7/2004BBC, 10/4/2004CENTER FOR JUSTICE AND ACCOUNTABILITY, 1/10/2005]Between two dozen and one hundred deaths are attributed to the Raboteau Massacre. The number will remain undetermined, however, because the attackers kill many who are fleeing in boats and whose bodies fall into the sea. Additionally, the killers toss several bodies of people killed on the land also into the ocean. Days later, mutilated bodies wash back to shore. [ST. PETERSBURG TIMES, 9/1/2002AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 3/10/2004CENTER FOR JUSTICE AND ACCOUNTABILITY, 1/10/2005]Among those who will be convicted for the atrocity are Louis-Jodel Chamblain and Jean Pierre Baptiste. [HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004JAMAICA OBSERVER, 3/7/2004;AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 3/10/2004BBC, 10/4/2004CENTER FOR JUSTICE AND ACCOUNTABILITY, 1/10/2005]

Former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide promises donors that he will implement neoliberal reforms if he is returned to power. He agrees to a plan calling for the privatization of some state-owned enterprises, including the country’s flour mill, cement factory, and electric company. The plan also requires the removal of import controls, reforming of customs, and the elimination of limits on interest rates. But due to strong domestic opposition, Aristide will not completely follow through with the Structural Adjustment Program once in office. [INTER PRESS SERVICE, 9/28/1995]

FRAPH deputy leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain escapes to the Dominican Republic when the US military intervenes in Haiti to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power. [HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004]

US and UN military forces enter Haiti and restore Jean-Bertrand Aristide to the presidency. [TURCK, 2/24/2004] US conservatives, such as Senator Jesse Helms, are against the intervention and criticize President Bill Clinton for engaging in unnecessary “nation building” in Haiti. Helms falsely makes the claim on the Senate floor that Aristide is “psychotic,” based on a CIA document later revealed to be a forgery. [NEWSDAY, 3/1/2004TAIPEI TIMES, 3/1/2004OBSERVER, 3/2/2004]

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide informs parliament that he will appoint Smarck Michel as the country’s new prime minister. Michel—who served briefly as Aristide’s commerce minister in 1991—owns a rice-importing business and retails gasoline. According to sources interviewed by the Washington Post, his selection “was aimed at appeasing the nation’s powerful business elite” and is viewed as a prerequisite for “winning support from foreign investors and attaining international development funds.” The Post reports, “At least two US-trained economic experts—former World Bank economist Leslie Delatour and former education minister Leslie Voltaire—had threatened not to participate in key government posts if Michel were not named prime minister.” [WASHINGTON POST, 10/25/1995]

The United States-led Multinational Force (MNF) searches the FRAPH office in Port-au-Prince and removes 60,000 pages of documents, mostly in French, which are given to the US. [AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 2/7/1996JOHN PIKE, 4/21/2001]

In Haiti, International development agencies implement short-term, labor-intensive job programs, focused primarily on road construction. According to agronomists interviewed in late summer of 1995, the programs are undermining local agricultural production and long term sustainable development programs. “In the middle of planting season, a large number of peasant farmers in the northeastern town of Vallieres abandoned their land to begin working in the areas with one of these projects,” agronomist Harry Noel explains. And in Artibonite Valley, revenues from levies on the irrigation pumps dramatically decrease when the job programs siphon off its labor supply. “Efforts over the years to create communally-managed irrigation systems have failed in just one season because of the job programs,” explains Volny Paultre, agronomist and consultant to the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). [INTER PRESS SERVICE, 9/4/1995]

Haitian authorities put warrants out for the arrest of FRAPH leaders Emmanuel “Toto” Constant and his deputy, Louis Jodel Chamblain who are wanted for their involvement in human rights violations that occurred during the previous three-year period of military rule. Emmanuel Constant flees to the United States.[AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, 2/7/1996]

Guy Philippe joins the new Haitian National Police and is posted at Ouanamithe near Haiti’s northern border with the Dominican Republic. [HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, 2/27/2004MIAMI HERALD, 2/28/2004]

Entity Tags: Guy Philippe

Category Tags: The opposition/post-Artistide gov't

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide announces a doubling of the minimum wage effective June 1, 1995 from 18 gourdes to 36 gourdes per day. Articles 1 and 2 of his decree reads, “Beginning June 1, 1995, the minimum wage paid in industrial, commercial, and agricultural businesses is fixed at 36 gourdes per 8-hour day… Where the employee works per piece or per task, the price paid for a unit of production (per piece, per dozen, per gross, per meter, etc.) must allow the employee who works 8 hours to earn at least the minimum salary.”[VERHOOGEN, 1/1996]

Entity Tags: Jean-Bertrand Aristide

Category Tags: Economic policy, foreign interference

 

 

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